ESTIMATING THROMBOEMBOLIC RISK — The major factors that increase thromboembolic risk are atrial fibrillation, prosthetic heart valves, and recent venous or arterial thromboembolism (eg, within the preceding three months).
Atrial fibrillation — Atrial fibrillation accounts for the highest percentage of patients for whom perioperative anticoagulation questions arise. Importantly, patients with atrial fibrillation are a heterogeneous group; risk can be further classified according to clinical variables such as age, hypertension, congestive heart failure, diabetes, prior stroke, and other vascular disease (table 1) [2,7]. The CHA2DS2-VASc score (table 4) (calculator 1), which incorporates these variables, is discussed in detail separately; of note, use of risk scores has not been prospectively validated in the perioperative setting. (See "Atrial fibrillation: Risk of embolization".) Source: UpToDate.com
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